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Or share via:. Or type the email address es below and click 'Send email' Your name. Protection from spam and abuse. Print Send email Cancel. Email sent! An email has been sent to the email addresses provided, with a link to this content. Yet progress has been, at best, painfully slow. Beyond PNG, health sectors have long faced criticism for taking a myopically bio-medical approach to gender equity—one in which only the biological differences of women and men are considered.

The need to go beyond biological differences to an understanding of gender as a relational concept has also been recognized by feminist communities and a new wave of identity politics has emerged that recognizes gender and health as complex, crosscutting issues. Despite this, in both the developed and developing worlds, policy and programs are still not effectively addressing the challenges [ 24 ]. Whilst gender mainstreaming does not preclude stand-alone, sex-specific interventions, these are both necessary and beneficial to combat inequality, the formation of such policies such as those directed at maternal health or infant mortality rates is often seen as sufficient in itself [ 25 ].

Gender mainstreaming will have little effect as an emancipatory project if applied technocratically, episodically and unsustainably, and where it fails to take account of the crosscutting variables it needs to effect. To make progress, we must understand what policy is trying to do and how it might be strengthened. The continued poor health status of PNG women, criticism of gender mainstreaming in its technocratic application, conceptual ambiguity and inability to deal with complexity or counter-balance the dominant bio-medical approach, are all factors which need to be assessed.

The growing call for a more complex notion of self in feminist thought and identity politics is also at issue here. It is highly relevant to study and analyze the policies that in theory should protect the lives and health of PNG women and their children, even with the complexity of their problems and their settings.

Text data - mining examines key words, concepts and themes in documents, derives the most salient contents especially of large documents, and creates a visual map of conceptual and thematic connections.

When people read texts, they import their own prejudices, understandings and idiosyncrasies. Textual data mining is less likely to be biased, as it cannot be dictated by the preconceptions of the researcher. Its use in this kind of analysis is uncommon, and although it has been used previously in studies of policy documents and guidelines [ 26 — 28 ], we can find no parallel study of gender analysis taking such an approach, and no study of developing countries and their policy considerations.

This points to the timeliness of this research. We complement textual analysis with content analysis. As indicated, two complementary analyses of the literature were undertaken.

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  • We sought triangulation of the methods. We first applied data-mining techniques provided by Leximancer, an automated content analysis computer program. We used the most recent advances, encapsulated in version 3. Second, Leximancer facilitates the examination of the connectivity and relationship between the concepts. Leximancer produces a ranked list of themes and concepts as well as a map of their connections, providing details both of the weight of a concept within the text and the strength of its connection to other concepts.

    Leximancer is unique for a number of reasons. It goes beyond mere counting of words, by containing a sophisticated thesaurus, and allows deep interrogation of concepts and themes. It not only produces rankings of the most prominent concepts and themes but the visual mapping feature also provides insights into the relationship between them. The map facilitates the possibility of revealing associations that could otherwise be missed [ 30 ]. Policies that specifically dealt with gender, such as the National Health Sector Gender Policy , were excluded as this was not our target research question, and doing so would likely skew the results.

    The included policies are representative of the policy landscape of PNG and are particularly pertinent to the aims of stakeholders to achieve a better society and health sector for PNG, along with fair, just and equitable health care and treatment in acute and community settings. A priori, at the heart of such policy lie plans for an effective delivery system modeled on others in both developed and developing countries, and relying on gender mainstreaming both for providers and patients.

    The Leximancer analysis was supported by a more traditional, summative content analysis to explore how gender has been treated in the policies and ascertain whether gender has been well conceptualized. Has gender, for example, been treated mainly as a bio-medical construct, or applied technocratically? The summative content analysis was conducted by the first-listed author to assess and interpret the text [ 38 ], and the results reviewed by the second-listed author. A researcher-conducted content analysis complements Leximancer as the latter gives us an overview of the major themes of the document whilst the former allows for a more in depth analysis and contextual understanding of the way in which gender has been considered in the documents.

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    In this case, a traditional content analysis was particularly useful and necessary in order to appreciate nuanced use and meaning, allowing us to locate the terms in the text, record their frequency, find any meaningfully related terms, and to note the context of use.

    The eight policy documents were each scanned and entered into a word-processing program to facilitate the researcher-conducted analysis. The total word count per document was determined through use of a computer word-count utility. We did not include tables, figures or supplementary material but did include title, main body of text, and summaries. There were a total of , words. The unit of analysis was specific key words related to gender. Word frequency counts for each of the gender related terms were calculated and compared to the total word counts for all of the eight policies.

    Then, we read each word found in its context, seeking to understand how it was used and the circumstances of use. The map shows themes, i. Concept map of policy literature. With Leximancer, concepts are denoted by dots, and the size of the concept dot is in direct relation to its significance compared with other concepts. A total of ten themes emerged. Health is the largest theme encompassing the concepts of services, care, rural, community and facilities.

    The second largest theme, government, includes sector, policy, public, provide, implementation, ensure and private. There is a significant cluster around the concept of services , which is linked with workers , community, promotion, delivery, rural and care. These align with the expectation that PNG healthcare must target local level access and services. Including is a more technical theme and encompasses implementation, national, use, effective, needs, planning and relevant. The Leximancer results provide us with a useful overview of the policy documents.

    Whilst this makes it difficult to map these gendered terms with other policy elements, their absence is telling. We can see from the other concepts that a great deal of focus is on the technocratic operation of health services, including process, facilities, cost, management and promotion.

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    This reflects the nature of the delivery of healthcare in PNG where infrastructure and access to services is lacking as the government and other groups struggle to stretch policy guidance and services across the difficult PNG terrain to the many rural communities. Research is both a significant theme and concept, reflective of the lack of reporting on effectiveness and outcomes of health programs and policy in PNG.

    However, focus on the technocratic and research aspects of the delivering of health care also perhaps denotes a lack of attention to specific areas of inequality. Both appear in a one-line quote from the PNG Constitution [ 36 ]. The third mention is listed, again including age, religion and others, in relation to equity in health [ 1 ]. The final mention occurs in the references. The final four mentions are from the references.

    It also gives strategies for enhancing gender equity. Nor does it occur in any of the other eight parts of the document, which include issues of economic strategies, transport and services development, resource allocations, and implementation and evaluation strategies [ 37 ]. Contextually, our reading of the texts suggests that, where gender does occur outside of specific examples of bio-medical treatment, it is considered purely technocratically, either listed along with other areas of concern for equality or as a small disclaimer noting that gender should be considered.

    Use of the Leximancer tool was intended to scope how gender has been associated with other themes and concepts. However, gendered terms did not manifest sufficiently often in the documents to make adequate assessments. The mandate of gender mainstreaming, agreed by the PNG government and aid donors, is that gender be considered at every stage in policy and its application. The traditional researcher-conducted content analysis also showed how the use of gender and gender-mainstreaming terms fell short of comprehensive application, measured both by frequency, and the contextual use, of the terms.

    All-in-all, gender and gender mainstreaming do not have sufficient prominence in policy documentation to act as a platform for change. The second aim of our study was to use these results to outline a set of recommendations for strengthening gender equity. PNG is an incredibly diverse country.

    A lack of political will, despite numerous agreements with donor countries and international treaties signed, means that there has yet to be any genuine commitment made to tackling gender inequality. Beyond this, gender mainstreaming in PNG and often, elsewhere does not come with any clear conceptualization of gender. It therefore does not mandate that the complexity of gender be truly considered. In the absence of any effective policy platform, our analysis, by extension, permits us to make two recommendations.

    First, that gender should be re-conceptualized in a way specific to the Papuan context. We deal with each in turn. The basis for such a re-conceptualization must be to move away from the current biomedical treatment of gender to a more prominent, more inclusive and broad-based, notion.

    One such lens through which to accomplish this is intersectionality. It requires that these things be examined together rather than as separate issues [ 39 ]. Gender mainstreaming provides a narrower conceptualization of gender and specific ideas for implementing policies to address the problems it identifies.

    Conversely, intersectionality offers a more complex, far-reaching framework for a conceptualization of gender and the societal factors that impacts upon it, yet struggles to successfully articulate strategies for effective policy making [ 39 ]. However, a synthesis of the two approaches could be a way forward. The Agenda requires a greater involvement among governments, civil society, private sector and international organizations to build more peaceful and inclusive just societies. Peace also brings new business opportunities by increasing stability, improving economic prospects and by building social and economic fabric in a community.


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    It uses the experience of MDG-F joint programmes that suggests a number of ways to mainstream gender approaches. All our programmes have been asked to answer these questions when designing, implementing, and monitoring our programmes. Skip to main content. Google Tag Manager. Home Library Publication details back. This indicates that GBV is under-reported.

    Gender analysis in Papua New Guinea (English) | The World Bank

    The social, emotional and physical costs of GBV are widely recognised, as are national-level economic costs. But the impact at individual firm level is less well understood. Being able to cost the multidimensional impact of GBV for a business, highlighting potential savings from investing in responsive and or preventative measures, is an important first step in building the business case for intervention and ultimately for contributing to a reduction of GBV incidence in PNG.

    This study sets out a practical approach for calculating costs within a firm and presents findings from three firms reviewed for this pilot study in PNG. The following review of methodology, prevalence findings, company responses, discussion, conclusions and recommendations provide a series of lessons for businesses and business support organisations seeking to develop a comprehensive response to the factors that enable and perpetuate GBV and its impacts.

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